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in ways

It’s a rough world out there. Step outside and you could break a leg slipping on your doormat. Light up the stove and you could burn down the house. Luckily, if the doormat or stove failed to warn of coming disaster, a successful lawsuit might compensate you for your troubles. Or so the thinking has gone since the early 1980s, when juries began holding more companies liable for their customers’ misfortunes.

Feeling threatened, companies responded by writing everlonger warning labels, trying to anticipate every possible accident. Today, stepladders carry labels several inches long that warn, among other things, that you might—surprise!fall off. The label on a child’s Batman cape cautions that the toy “does not enable user to fly”.

While warnings are often appropriate and necessary—the dangers of drug interactions, for example—and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn’t clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured. About 50 percent of the companies lose when injured customers take them to court.

Now the tide appears to be turning. As personal injury claims continue as before, some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably wouldn’t have changed anything. In May, Julie Nimmons, president of Schutt Sports in Illinois, successfully fought a lawsuit involving a football player who was paralyzed in a game while wearing a Schutt helmet. “We’re really sorry he has become paralyzed, but helmets aren’t designed to prevent those kinds of injuries, ” says Nimmons. The jury agreed that the nature of the game, not the helmet, was the reason for the athlete’s injury. At the same time, the American Law Institute—a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight—issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones. “Important information can get buried in a sea of trivialities, ” says a law professor at Cornell Law School who helped draft the new guidelines. If the moderate end of the legal community has its way, the information on products might actually be provided for the benefit of customers and not as protection against legal liability.

    11. What were things like in 1980s when accidents happened?

A] Customers might be relieved of their disasters through lawsuits.

B] Injured customers could expect protection from the legal system.

C] Companies would avoid being sued by providing new warnings.

D] Juries tended to find fault with the compensations companies promised.

12. Manufacturers as mentioned in the passage tend to.

A] satisfy customers by writing long warnings on products

B] become honest in describing the inadequacies of their products

C] make the best use of labels to avoid legal liability

D] feel obliged to view customers’ safety as their first concern

13. The case of Schutt helmet demonstrated that.

A] some injury claims were no longer supported by law

B] helmets were not designed to prevent injuries

C] product labels would eventually be discarded

D] some sports games might lose popularity with athletes

14. The author’s attitude towards the issue seems to be.

[A] biased   [B] indifferent  [C] puzzling  [D] objective

权威解析

一、核心词汇注释

anticipate  vt. *1.预期,预料 例:anticipated the hard winter ahead预见料到前面的严冬 2.期盼,期待(尤指好事) 例:I anticipated the interview with pleasure. 我愉快地期待着这次会见。 3.早于(别人)采取行动,抢先一步,先于……之前(做) 例:When I arrived, I found that he had anticipated me. 当我到达时我发现他已先到过那里。

cape n. [C*1.斗篷,披风,披肩 2.(常用于地理名称)海角岬 例:the Cape of Good Hope好望角

have/get/follow ones (own) way一意孤行,为所欲为,随心所欲 例:Since he insists, Ill let him have his way. 既然他坚持,我就由着他。

liable  a. *1. (法律上)有赔偿责任的(后跟介词for)例:Manufacturers are liable for any defects in the equipment. 制造商对设备的任何缺陷都负有赔偿责任。2. 易于(可能,倾向于)做某事(尤指不幸的事情) 例:In a depression banks are liable to fail. 萧条时期银行往往倒闭。  3.易出问题的,易得病的;可能受(尤指结果不好的事情)影响(后跟介词to) 例:liable to diabetes 易患糖尿病的;liability n. (法律上对某事物的赔偿等)责任义务;负债,债务;受某物影响的倾向(尤指不好的事物)

moderate  a. 1.中等的,适度的 例:a moderatesized garden中型花园2.(尤指政治观点、信仰等)不极端的,温和的,不偏激的  *3. 有节制的,不过分的,合理的 例:moderate wage demands 合理的工资要求

vi.&vt. (使)缓和,(使)减轻,节制,克制 例:The students moderated their demands. 学生们降低了他们的要求。

side with sb (against sb/sth) 支持某人(反对……),和某人站在一起(反对……) 例:The kids always sided with their mother against me. 孩子们总是和妈妈站在一边,跟我唱对台戏。

slip  vi. *1.滑;滑倒,失足 2.to move quickly, smoothly, or secretly 迅速移动;悄悄溜走(常跟介词或副词使用) 例:Nobody saw her slip silently out.没有人看到她悄悄地溜了出去。

vt. 把……悄悄放在或递给…… 例:I slipped a note into his hand under the table.我偷偷从桌子底下塞给他一张条子。

n. [C] 1.滑动;滑倒 2.小纸片,纸条 3.a small mistake小错误 例:a slip of the tongue/pen 口误/笔误

weight  n. 1.[U, C] 重量,分量 2. a great responsibility or worry重任,重担,重压 例:The news was certainly a weight off my mind. 这个消息真是去掉了我心里的重担。 *3.U] importance, influence or strength重要性,影响力,实力 例:The many letter of support added weight to the campaign. 许多声援信增加了这场运动的影响力。

超纲词汇:

tort [tt] n.民事侵权行为;tort law 侵权法;

bombard [′bmbad] v. 轰炸,轰击;大量提问,大肆抨击,提供过多信息


二、文章结构总体分析

这是一篇法律题材的文章。它客观叙述了人身伤害索赔的来由、发展和变化,以及索赔案所涉及的消费者 (原告)、公司 (被告)和法庭三方面的反应,着重指出法庭态度的转变。

第一段至第三段:介绍过去人身伤害索赔案的特点。由于法庭总是倾向于让公司负责,公司开始写出冗长的警示语来避免承担法律责任。但即使这样也不能保护它们免受制裁。该部分使用了例证法。

第四段:指出现在情况发生了变化,一些法庭开始站到公司(被告)一边,同时警示语开始真正起到保护消费者利益的作用。该部分使用了例证和引证说明。


三、试题具体分析

11.What were things like in 1980s when accidents happened?

11.在20世纪80年代当发生事故时,情况会如何?

[A] Customers might be relieved of their disasters through lawsuits.

[A] 顾客可以通过诉讼而免受灾难。

[B] Injured customers could expect protection from the legal system.

[B] 受伤的顾客有望得到法律体制的保护。

[C] Companies would avoid being sued by providing new warnings.

[C] 公司将通过提供新的警示语避免被起诉。

[D] Juries tended to find fault with the compensations companies promised.

[D] 陪审团倾向于对公司所承诺的赔偿严加挑剔。

 [分析本题考核的知识点是:具体细节题。难度:0.34

根据题干给出的时间信息1980s定位到第一段末句。该句是一个主从复合句。主句中the thinking指代上一句的内容,即,“还算幸运的是,如果门垫或炉灶上没有警示语提醒你可能发生的危险,那么一场成功的诉讼或许可以补偿你所受的伤害”。has gonego取其引申义:流传、传播。因此主句的含义是:这种因意外事故受伤后希望通过诉讼获取补偿的想法大约自20世纪80年代初得以传播。关系副词when引导非限定性定语从句,when相当于in 1980s,意为“当时(在20世纪80年代)陪审团开始认为更多的公司应对其客户所遭受的不幸负责”。主从句之间暗含了一个因果关系:因为法庭对事故受害者的保护倾向导致索赔这种想法的广泛传播。本题考的就是末句所陈述的事实,[B]选项是对the thinking的具体阐述,为正确项。

[A]选项与原文不符,顾客是遭受灾难之后希望通过诉讼得到金钱上的补偿(compensate),而不是“免于灾难”,relieve sb of sth意为free sb from sth unpleasant, arduous or monotonous使(人)从不愉快的、费力的、单调的事情中解脱出来,如:relieve you of a tremendous burden/unwanted advertisements使你卸掉沉重的包袱/免受垃圾广告的骚扰。[C]选项出现了原文中没有的内容new warnings,而且第三段第一句指出,虽然警示语常常是合理而必要的,但是当消费者受伤时,这些警示语能否真正保护制造商和销售商使之免于承担责任,却还很难说。[D]选项文中未提及,文章只提到,陪审团认为公司应对其客户所遭受的不幸负责(第一段末)。

12.Manufacturers as mentioned in the passage tend to.

12.文中提及生产厂商往往。

[A] satisfy customers by writing long warnings on products

[A] 通过在产品上写长长的警示语使顾客满意

[B] become honest in describing the inadequacies of their products

[B] 诚实描述自己产品不足


[C] make the best use of labels to avoid legal liability

[C] 充分利用标签避免法律责任

[D] feel obliged to view customers safety as their first concern

[D] 不得不视顾客的安全为自己的第一考虑

 [分析本题考核的知识点是:具体细节题。难度:0.68

文章第二段提到(由于陪审团认为公司应对客户的不幸负责)公司方面做出的反应是:撰写冗长的警告标签,以预先标明种种可能发生的事故。第三段接着提到,警示语能否真正保护制造商和销售商使之免于承担责任,却还很难说。由此可知生产商利用警示语或标签的真正意图是“避免可能要承担的法律责任”。[C]选项是正确答案。其他选项都不符合文意。

13.The case of Schutt helmet demonstrated that.

13.Schutt头盔的案例说明。

[A] some injury claims were no longer supported by law

[A] 某些因为伤害提出的索赔不再受法律的保护

[B] helmets were not designed to prevent injuries

[B] 头盔不是被设计用来防止伤害的

[C] product labels would eventually be discarded

[C] 产品标签最终将被淘汰

[D] some sports games might lose popularity with athletes

[D] 运动员可能不再热衷于某些体育运动项目

 [分析本题考核的知识点是:写作目的题。难度:0.69

根据Schutt定位到第四段,在举该例之前作者指出“现在情况似乎正在发生转变。虽然个人受伤索赔的案子像以往一样不断出现,但是一些法庭开始站到被告一边,特别是在有警告标签也可能无法避免事故的案件中”。这正是该例子所要说明的观点。[A]选项是该段主题的概括。[B]选项是Schutt公司总裁辩护时的用词,属部分细节,与目的无关。[C]选项和[D]选项文中未提。

技巧:考生应该注意举例前后的总结往往是其目的所在。因此见到例子时考生应迅速查找其上下文。

14.The authors attitude towards the issue seems to be .

14.作者对所讨论的问题的态度似乎是。

[A] biased

[A] 有偏见的

[B] indifferent

[B] 冷漠的

[C] puzzling

[C] 迷惑不解的

[D] objective

[D] 客观的

[分析本题考核的知识点是:作者态度题。难度:0.72

回答作者态度题时,考生需在通读全篇的基础上,找出作者在陈述事实和发表观点时的口气和态度。综观全文,作者只是站在第三者的角度论述问题,没有搀杂个人的主观臆断和看法,而是客观地叙述索赔案的来由、发展和变化,以客观事实和例子说明问题,无任何偏袒。因此[D]选项为正确答案。

技巧:对于态度题,考生要联系全文,把握整篇文章。同时不要把考生自己的态度糅进其中,还要注意区分作者本人的态度和被作者引用的他人的观点的态度。一般情况下,作者的态度和观点都应具有客观性,不带有主观感情,所以考生应注意慎选具有主观感情色彩的词汇,另外,作者一旦将某种观点表达成立,就说明他对该事件是充分关注的,因此,诸如indifferent这类词汇不入选。


四、文章长难句分析和佳句赏析

Step outside and you could break a leg slipping on your doormat. Light up the stove and you could burn down the house.

这两个句子都是通过and把一个祈使句和陈述句连接组成的并列句式。在这样的句子结构中,前面的祈使句式是后面的陈述句的条件,相当于一个条件状语从句,连词and表示结果,意思是“结果是;那么;就”,如:Miss another class and youll fail.(你再缺一次课就会不及格的)。

知识点补充:light up意为“点燃”;burn down意为“烧毁”。

② While warnings are often appropriate and necessarythe dangers of drug interactions, for exampleand many are required by state or federal regulations, it isnt clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured.

该句主干是While... , it isnt clear that... ,其中“it”是形式主语后接that引导的主语句子。前面是While引导的让步状语从句,它其中又包含着and连接的两个并列分句,即warnings are often appropriate and necessarymany are required by state or federal regulations;破折号中的部分是前一个分句的插入语,举例说明warnings的具体内容。而many后省略了warnings

知识点补充:drug interactions意为“药物相互作用”。

③ At the same time, the American Law Institutea group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weightissued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones.

句子主干是…, the American Law Institute...issued new guidelines...。破折号起解释说明的作用,是对the American Law Institute进行的解释说明。在guidelines这个宾语之后,是state的现在分词引导的短语做定语。

知识点补充:carry substantial weight为carry weight这一成语的变形,意为“(说话)有分量,起作用”,因此这里carry substantial weight的意思是“发挥实际的作用或影响”。weight是名词,意为“分量、重要性;影响”如:The weight of evidence is in his favour (证据很大分量上是有利于他的);tort是法律用语,指民事侵权行为;bombard原义为“轰炸”、“向…提一系列问题”,这里用做比喻,形容“大量地提供”。

佳句赏析

Now the tide appears to be turning.

“现在这种潮流(形势)似乎在逆转”,相当于汉语中的“三十年河东,三十年河西”。“tide... turn”这样的搭配经常用于描述潮流或形势的变化,比较贴切、形象。 如:The tide of the battle turned against us.(战斗的形势开始变得不利于我们)。

Important information can get buried in a sea of trivialities.

“重要的信息可能被埋没在浩如烟海的细枝末节里”。句中的“a sea of”是一个比喻,形容“一大片,大量的”。如:The immense square was a sea of flowers and happy faces.(这个大广场上到处是鲜花和笑脸)。


五、全文翻译

外面是一个危险的世界。迈出家门时,你可能会滑倒在门垫上,而摔伤一条腿。点燃炉灶时,你可能会把房子烧掉。(长难句①)不过还算幸运的是,如果门垫或炉灶上没有警示语提醒你可能发生的危险,那么一场成功的诉讼或许可以补偿你所受的伤害。这种想法大约自20世纪80年代初开始传播,那时陪审团开始认为更多的公司应对其客户所遭受的不幸负责。

由于感到了威胁,公司方面做出了反应:写出越来越长的警示语,力图预先标明种种可能发生的事故。如今,活梯上贴着几英寸长的警告标签,除了其他警告事项外,还警告你可能会摔下来,简直是莫名其妙!贴在儿童的蝙蝠侠披风上的标签也告诫说,本玩具“无法让用户飞行”。

虽然警示语常常是合理而必要的(如警告药物有相互作用的危险),并且很多是州或联邦法规所要求的,但是当消费者受伤时,这些警示语能否真正保护制造商和销售商使之免于承担责任,却还很难说。(长难句)被受伤的消费者告上法庭的公司中,大约一半会败诉。

现在这种趋势似乎正在转变。(佳句①)尽管个人伤害索赔案件如以往一样不断发生,但有些法庭已开始站到被告一方,特别是在处理那些有警告标签也可能无法避免伤害的案件时。五月份,伊利诺斯州的Schutt体育公司总裁朱利·尼蒙斯就成功地打赢了这样一场官司。一名橄榄球队员戴着该公司的头盔在一场比赛中受伤瘫痪,遂将该公司告上法庭。尼蒙斯说:“他成了瘫痪,我们非常难过,但我们设计头盔不是为了预防这类伤害的。”陪审团也认为造成该运动员受伤的是这项运动本身的危险性,而不是头盔。与此同时,美国法学会——一群说话举足轻重的法官、律师、学者——发布了新的侵权法指导原则,宣布公司不必警示顾客那些显而易见的危险,或者给顾客列出一份冗长的可能遇到的危险的清单。(长难句③)康奈尔大学法学院一位参与起草新指导原则的教授说,“重要的信息会淹没在细枝末节的汪洋之中”。(佳句②)如果该法律团体的这一适中的目标能够实现,产品上提供的警示信息就不再是为回避法律责任而设,而是为保护消费者利益而提供了。

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